Saturday, 4 January 2020

Materials: Metals and Non-Metals

0 comments
Materials: Metals and Non-Metals






 











Question 1.
Which of the following can be beaten into thin sheets?
(a) Zinc
(b) Phosphorus
(c) Sulphur
(d) Oxygen

Answer:
(a) Zinc

Question 2.
Which of the following statements is correct?
(a) All metals are ductile.
(b) All non-metals are ductile.
(c) Generally, metals are ductile.
(d) Some non-metals are ductile.

Answer:
(c) Generally, metals are ductile

Question 3.
Fill in the blanks.
(a) Phosphorus is a very ____ non-metal.
(b) Metals are _____ conductors of heat and _____
(c) Iron is ______ reactive than copper.
(d) Metals react with acids to produce ______ gas.

Answer:
(a) reactive
(b) good, electricity
(c) more
(d) hydrogen

Question 4.
Mark ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if it is false.
(a) Generally, non-metals react with acids.
(b) Sodium is a very reactive metal.
(c) Copper displaces zinc from zinc sulphate solution.
(d) Coal can be drawn into wires.

Answer:
(a) False
(b) True
(c) False
(d) False

Question 5.
Some properties are listed in the following Table. Distinguish between metals and non-metals on the basis of these properties.
Properties
Metals
Non-metals
1. Appearance
2. Hardness
3. Malleability
4. Ductility
5. Heat Conduction
6. Conduction of Electricity
Answer:
Properties
Metals
Non-metals
1. Appearance
have metallic lustre
dull
2. Hardness
hard
soft
3. Malleability
malleable
non-malleable
4. Ductility
ductile
non-ductile
5. Heat Conduction
good conductors
bad conductors
6. Conduction of Electricity
good conductors
bad conductors/insulators

Question 6.
Give reasons for the following.
(a) Aluminium foils are used to wrap food items.
(b) Immersion rods for heating liquids are made up of metallic substances.
(c) Copper cannot displace zinc from its salt solution.
(d) Sodium and potassium are stored in kerosene.

Answer:
(a) Aluminium is highly malleable and it can be easily beaten in sheets to make its foil for wrapping purposes. It is also soft and does not react with food items. That is why aluminium foils are used . to wrap food items.
(b) Immersion rods made up of metallic substances because metals are good conductors of heat and electricity. They get hot very soon on the passage of electric current and warm the water.
(c) Copper is less reactive than zinc. So it cannot displace zinc from its solution.
(d) Sodium and potassium are highly reactive, so they are stored in kerosene.

Question 7.
Can you store the lemon pickle in an aluminium utensil? Explain.


Answer:
No, we cannot store lemon pickle in an aluminium utensil because aluminium is a metal and metals readily react with acids to produce hydrogen. When aluminium comes in contact with lemon, which is acidic, would react to give hydrogen and the pickles will be spoiled.

Question 8.
Match the substances given in column A with their uses given in column B.
A
B
Gold
Thermometers
Iron
Electric wire
Aluminum
Wrapping food
Carbon
Jewellery
Copper
Machinery
Mercury
Fuel
Answer:
(i) (d)
(ii) (e)
(iii) (c)
(iv) (f)
(v) (b)
(vi) (a)

Question 9.
What happens when
(a) Dilute sulphuric acid is poured on a copper plate?
(b) Iron nails are placed in a copper sulphate solution?
Write word equations of the reactions involved.

Answer:
(a) No reaction will take place because copper is very less reactive.
(b) Iron being more reactive than copper will replace copper from its solution and brown coating of copper is deposited on the iron nails. Also, the blue colour turns green.
Iron + Copper sulphate (solution) → Iron sulphate (solution) + Copper

Question 10.
Saloni took a piece of burning charcoal and collected the gas evolved in a test tube.
(a) How will she find the nature of the gas?
(b) Write down the word equations of all the reactions taking place in this process.

(a) She can find the nature of the gas by using a wet litmus paper. After bringing the litmus paper in contact with the gas, if it turns the blue litmus paper into red, it is acidic. Similarly, if it turn the red litmus into blue, it is basic.
(b) (i) Carbon + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide
(ii) Carbon dioxide + Lime water → Milky

Question 11.
One day Reeta went to a jeweller’s shop with her mother. Her mother gave an old gold jewellery to the goldsmith to polish. Next day when they brought the jewellery back, they found that there was a slight loss in its weight. Can you suggest a reason for the loss in weight?

Answer:
The gold jewellery is dipped into an acidic solution called aqua regia (a mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid) for polishing. On dipping the gold jewellery in the acid solution, the outer layer of gold dissolves and the inner shiny layer appears. This causes a slight loss in its weight.