Saturday, 28 December 2019

Metals and Non-Metals


Metals and Non-Metals

Question 1.
Which of the following pairs will give displacement reactions?

(a) NaCl solution and copper metal.
(b) MgCl2 solution and aluminium metal.
(c) FeSO4 solution and silver metal.
(d) AgNO3 solution and copper metal.
(d) AgNO3 solution and copper metal.
Question 2.
Which of the following methods is suitable for preventing an iron frying pan from rusting?
(a) Applying grease
(b) Applying paint.
(c) Applying a coating of zinc
(d) All the above.

(c) Applying a coating of zinc.
Question 3.
An element reacts with oxygen to give a compound with a high melting point. This compound is also soluble in water. The element is likely to be
(a) calcium
(b) carbon
(c) silicon
(d) iron

(a) Calcium.
Question 4.
Food cans are coated with tin and not with zinc because
(a) zinc is costlier than tin
(b) zinc has a higher melting point than tin
(c) zinc is less reactive than tin
(d) zinc is more reactive than tin.

(d) Zinc is more reactive than tin.

Question 5.
You are given a hammer, a battery, a bulb, wires and a switch.
(a) How could you use them to distinguish between samples of metals and non-metals?
(b) Assess the usefulness of these tests in distinguishing between metals and non-metals.

(a) Metals can be beaten into thin sheets with a hammer without breaking. Non-metals cannot be beaten with a hammer to form thin sheets. Non-metals break into pieces when hammered. Metals are malleable, while non-metals are non-melleable. When metals are connected into circuit using a battery, bulb, wires and switch, current passes through the circuit and the bulb glows. When non-metals (like sulphur) are connected, the bulb does not light up at all. Metals are good conductors of electricity.
(b) Because of malleability, metals can be casted into sheets. Metals are good conductors of electricity so these can be used for electrical cables.
Question 6.
What are amphoteric oxides? Give two examples of amphoteric oxides?
Write chemical equations that show aluminium oxide reacts with acid as well as base.
Those metal oxides which show basic as well as acidic behaviour are known as amphoteric oxides. In other words, metal oxides that react wtih both acids and bases to form salt and water are called amphoteric oxides. Aluminium oxide and zinc oxide are amphoteric in nature.
Question 7.
Name two metals which will displace hydrogen from dilute acids and two metals which will not.

(i) Metals above hydrogen in the activity series like sodium and magnesium displace hydrogen from dilute acids.
(ii) Metals below hydrogen in the activity series like copper, silver do not displace hydrogen from dilute acids.
Question 8.
In the electrolytic refining of a metal M, what would you take as the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte?

Cathode           –      Pure metal
Anode               –     Impure metal
Electrolyte       –     Metal salt solution
Question 9.
Pratyush took sulphur powder on a spatula and heated it. He collected the gas evolved by inverting a test tube over it, as shown in the figure.
(a) What will be the action of gas on
(i) dry litmus paper ?
(ii) moist litmus paper ?
(b) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction taking place.

(i) Dry litmus paper        –   no action.
(ii) Moist litmus paper   –   becomes red.
Question 10.
State two ways to prevent the rusting of iron.

Ways to prevent rusting of iron are :
(a) By painting
(b) By galvanizing

Question 11.
What type of oxides are formed when non-metals combine with oxygen?

Non-metals combine with oxygen to form acidic oxides or neutral oxides.
Question 12.
Give reasons :
(a) Platinum, gold and silver are used to make jewellery.
(b) Sodium, potassium and lithium are stored under oil.
(c) Aluminium is a highly reactive metal, yet it is used to make utensils for cooking.
(d) Carbonate and sulphide ores are usually converted into oxides during the process of extraction.

(a) Platinum, gold and silver are used to make jewellery because these are malleable and ductile. These are highly resistant to corrosion.
(b) Sodium, potassium and lithium are very reactive and catch fire when exposed to air. This is due to their low ignition temperature and high reactivity.
(c) Aluminium forms a non-reactive layer of aluminium oxide on its surface. This layer prevents aluminium to react with other substances. That’s why aluminium is used to make cooking utensils.
(d) It is easier to reduce a metal oxide into free metal. Since it is easier to obtain metals from their oxides than from their carbonates or sulphides directly, therefore, the carbonate and sulphide ores are first converted to oxides for extracting the metals.
Question 13.
You must have seen tarnished copper vessels being cleaned with lemon or tamarind juice. Explain why these sour substances are effective in cleaning the vessels.

The sour substances such as lemon or tamarind juice contain acids. These acids dissolve the coating of copper oxide or basic copper carbonate present on the surface of tarnished copper vessels and makes them shining red-brown again.
Question 14.
Differentiate between metal and non-metal on the basis of their chemical properties.
Difference between metals and non-metals
(i) Metals form basic oxides or amphoteric oxides.
(i) Non-metals form acidic or neutral oxides.
(ii) Metals replace hydrogen from acids and form salts.
(ii) Non-metals do not replace hydrogen from acids.
(iii) With chlorine, metals form chlorides which are electrovalent.
(iii) With chlorine, non-metals form chlorides which are covalent.
(iv) With hydrogen few metals form hydrides which are electrovalent.
(iv) With hydrogen, non-metals form many stable hydrides which are covalent.
Question 15.
A man went door-to door posing as a goldsmith. He promised to bring back the glitter of old and dull gold ornaments. An unsuspecting lady gave a set of gold bangles to him which he dipped in a particular solution. The bangles sparkled like new but their weight was reduced drastically. The lady was upset but after a futile argument the man beat a hasty repeat. Can you play the detective to find out the nature of the solution he has used?

The dishonest goldsmith dipped the gold bangles in aqua-regia (which contains 1 part of concentrated nitric acid and 3 parts of concentrated hydrochloric acid, by volume). Aqua-regia dissolved a considerable amount of gold from gold bangles and hence reduced their weight drastically. The dishonest goldsmith can recover the dissolved gold from aqua-regia by a suitable treatment.
Question 16.
Give reasons why copper is used to make hot water tanks and not steel (analloy of iron).

(i) Copper is a better conductor of heat than steel.
(ii) Copper does not corrode easily. But steel corrodes easily.
(iii) Copper does not react with water at any temperature, whereas iron reacts with water on heating.