Sunday, 29 December 2019

Life Process

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Life Process


















Question 1
The kidneys in human beings are a part of the system for
(i) nutrition
(ii) respiration
(iii) excretion
(iv) transportation

Answer:
(iii) Excretion
Question 2
The xylem in plants are responsible for
(i) transport of water
(ii) transport of food
(iii) transport of amino acids
(iv) transport of oxygen

Answer:
(i) Transport of water
Question 3
The autotrophic mode of nutrition requires
(i) carbon dioxide and water
(ii) chlorophyll
(iii) sunlight
(iv) all of the above

Answer:
(iv) All of the above
Question 4
The breakdown of pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water and energy takes place in
(i) cytoplasm
(ii) mitochondria
(iii) chloroplast
(iv) nucleus

Answer:
(ii) Mitochondria
Question 5
How are fats digested in our bodies? Where does this process take place?

Answer:
Digestion of fats takes place in the small intestine.
Bile juice secreted by the liver poured in the intestine along with pancreatic juice. The bile salts present in the bile juice emulsify fhe large globules of fats. Therefore, by enulsification large globules break down into fine globules to provide larger surface area to act upon by the enzymes.
Lipase enzyme present in the pancreatic juice causes break down of emulsified fats. Glands present in the wall of small intestine secrete intestinal juice which contains lipase enzyme that converts fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
Question 6
What is the role of saliva in the digestion of food?

Answer:
Saliva contains salivary amylase enzyme that breaks down starch into sugars like maltose.

Saliva keeps the mouth cavity clean and moistens the food that help in chewing and breaking down the big pieces of food into smaller ones.
Question 7
What are the necessary conditions (or autotrophic nutrition and what are its by-products ?

Answer:
Necessary conditions for autotrophic nutrition :
(i) Presence of chlorophyll in the living cells.
(if) Provision of supply of water to green plants or cells of the plant.
(iii) Sufficient sunlight.
(iv) Sufficient supply of carbon dioxide.
By-product of auto tropic nutrition is oxygen.
Question 8
What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? Name some organisms that use the anaerobic mode of respiration.

Answer:
Aerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration
1. It takes place in the presence of oxygen.
1. It takes place in the absence of oxygen.
2. Complete breakdown of food occurs in aerobic respiration.
2. Partial breakdown of food occurs in anaerobic respiration.
3. The end products in aerobic respiration are carbon dioxide and water.
3. The end products in anaerobic respiration may be ethanol and carbon dioxide (as in yeast plants) or lactic acid (as in animal muscles).
4. Aerobic respiration produces a considerable amount of energy.
4. Much less energy is produced in anaerobic respiration.
Some organisms which use anaerobic respiration are yeast, bacteria etc.
Question 9
How are the alveoli designed to maximise the exchange of gases ?

Answer:
(i) The alveoli are thin walled and richly supplied with a network of blood vessels to facilitate exchange of gases between blood and the air filled in alveoli.
(ii) Alveoli have balloon-like structure. Hence, provide maximum surface for exchange of gases.
Question 10
What would be the consequences of a deficiency of haemoglobin in our bodies?

Answer:
Due to the deficiency of haemoglobin in blood, its oxygen carrying capacity decreases. As a result the production of energy by oxidation will become slower. Therefore, one would fall sick and would feel fatigue most of the time.
Question 11
Describe double circulation in human beings. Why is it necessary ?

Answer:
In our heart blood enters twice and also pumped out twice from the heart. The deoxygenated blood from the body is brought to the right atrium through vena cava from where it is sent to right ventricle. From right ventricle, the blood is pumped to the lungs for oxygenation through pulmonary artery. The oxygenated blood from lungs again enters the left atrium of the heart through pulmonary veins. From left atrium it is send to left ventricle, from where this oxygenated blood is pumped to different parts of body through the arteries. In this way the blood flows through the heart twice, that’s why it is called ‘double circulation’.
Necessity of double circulation: The right side and the left side of the human heart are useful to keep deoxygenated and oxygenated blood from mixing. This type of separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood ensures a highly efficient supply of oxygen to the body. This is useful in case of humans who constantly need energy to maintain their body temperature.
Question 12
What are the differences between the transport of materials in xylem and phloem ?

Answer:
Xylem
Phloem
1.  Xylem conducts water and dissolved minerals from roots to leaves and other parts.
1. Phloem conducts prepared food material from leaves to other parts of plant in dissolved form.
2. In xylem, the transport of material takes place through vessels and tracheids which are dead tissues.
2. In phloem, transport of material takes place through sieve tubes with the help of companion cells, which are living cells.
3. In xylem upward movement of water and dissolved minerals is mainly achieved by transpiration pull. It is caused due to suction created by evaporation of water molecules from the cells of a leaf.
3. In translocation, material is transferred into phloem tissue using energy from ATP. This increases the osmotic pressure that moves the material in the phloem to tissues which have less pressure



Question 13
Compare the functioning of alveoli in the lungs and nephrons in the kidneys with respect to their structure and functioning.

Answer:
Alveoli
Nephron          
1. Alveoli are functional unit of lungs.
1. Nephrons are functional unit of kidney.
2. A mature lung has about 30 crore alveoli.
2. A kidney has about 10 lakh nephrons.
3. Alveoli provide a wide surface for gaseous exchange.
3. The surface area of a nephron is not much more.
4. The exchange of O2 and CO2 takes place through the network of capillaries in alveoli.
4. The Bowman’s capsule in nephron regulates the concentration of water and salts.