Sunday, 29 December 2019

Control and Coordination

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Control and Coordination















Question 1
Which of the following is a plant hormone?
(a) Insulin
(b) Thyroxin
(c) Oestrogen
(d) Cytokinin
Answer:
(d) Cytokinin
Question 2
The gap between two neurons is called a
(a) dendrite
(b) synapse
(c) axon
(d) impulse
Answer:
(b) Synapse
Question 3
The brain is responsible for
(a) thinking
(b) regulating the heart beat
(c) balancing the body
(d) all of the above
Answer:
(b) All of the above
Question 4
What is the function of receptors in our body? Think of situations where receptors do not work properly. What problems are likely to arise? [AICBSE 2016]
Answer:
Receptors are specialised cells located in our sense organs like ear, nose, skin, tongue and eyes. The function of receptors is to detect information from the environment. For example, olfactory receptors detect smell. If receptors do not work properly, the information obtained from the environment will be delayed to reach the spinal cord or brain. In this situation, the response to the environmental stimulus will be delayed causing harm to the body. For example, if skin receptors are damaged, and one accidentally touches a hot object, then his/her hands might get burn as the damaged receptor cannot perceive the external stimuli of heat and pain.
Question 5
Draw the structure of a neuron and explain its function. [AICBSE 2017]
Answer:
Nerve cell or neuron is the functional unit of nervous system. A nerve cell has three parts-
(i) cell body
(ii) dendrite
(iii) axon

Function : The function of nerve cells is to carry information in the form of electrical signals which are called nerve impulses. Cells receive stimulus to send it to spinal cord and brain and carry the message from brain to the target organ.
Question 6
How does phototropism occur in plants ?
Answer:
The movement in any part of a plant due to light is called phototropism. The shoot of plant shows positive phototropism and roots show negative phototropism.
Phototropism in plants occurs due to the hormone auxin. When light falls on one side of a plant, the secretion of auxin hormone is more in the part away from the light. Hence, auxin causes growth in length of the cells in shady part. So, the plant appears to bend towards light.
Question 7
Which signals will get disrupted in case of a spinal cord injury ?
Answer:
(i) All the involuntary actions will get disturbed.
(ii) Reflex actions will be disturbed because reflexes are located in the spinal cord. Therefore, the quick responses required to safe guard the body will not take place.
Question 8
How does chemical coordination occur in plants ?
Answer:
Chemical coordination in plants takes place with the help of plant hormones. In most of the regions where division takes place (meristematic regions) stimuli cells secrete chemical compounds (hormone). These substances identify the information by stimulating the other nearby cells and communicating the information.
Question 9
What is the need for a system of control and coordination in an organism ?
Answer:
An organism needs control and coordination system for the following functions :
(i) To save the body of the organisms from the harmful changes in the environment.
(ii) To control the speed of voluntary and involuntary actions.
(iii) To have the capability to think and learn for responding to any stimuli.
Question 10
How are involuntary actions and reflex actions different from each other ?
Answer:
Involuntary actions Reflex actions
 1. Those actions which occur immediately without any thinking are called involuntary actions. 1. Reflex action is an immediate response to an event which does not require any processing by brain.
2. Involuntary actions are controlled by mid and hind brain.
Example: Breathing, beating of heart, etc. 2. Reflex actions are controlled by spinal cord.
Example: Sneezing, coughing, etc.
Question 11
Compare and contrast nervous and hormonal mechanisms for control and coordination in animals.
Answer:
Nervous mechanism Hormonal mechanism
It is a fast process. It is a slow process.
Arteries and glands are affected. It affects the target organ.
It transmits in electrochemical form. It transmits in chemical form.
It does not control metabolism. It controls metabolism.
Growth is not affected. Growth is affected.
Question 12
What is the difference between the manner in which movement takes place in a sensitive plant and the movement in our legs ?
Answer:
Movement in a sensitive (mimosa) plant Movement in legs of a human
1. The leaves of a sensitive plant like mimosa are sensitive to touch. 1. Leg is in control of nerve muscles.
2. It is not controlled by any part of the plant. 2. It is controlled by brain and spinal cord.
3. In this, cells change their shape on changing the amount of water in them. 3. Amount of water has no effect on the movement of muscles.
changing the amount of water in them. the movement of muscles.
4. The movement in a sensitive plant are nastic movement. 4. The movement in our leg is due to voluntary nervous system.